According to World Alzheimer Report 2015 from Alzheimer’s Disease International, 46.8
million people worldwide are living with dementia in 2015.
This number will almost double every 20 years, reaching 74.7 million in 2030 and 131.5
million in 2050.
It is well known there is still no drug capable of improving Alzheimer’s disease.
Ginsberg has first reported the close correlation between plasmalogen and Alzheimer’s disease, that is, plasmalogen was decreased in post mortem brain samples of Alzheimer’s disease, compared with in other neurodegenerative diseases.
Goodenowe showed that circulating plasmalogen was decreased in serum from patients
with Alzheimer’s disease and the decrease of the plasmalogen correlated with the severity of dementia.
First, let me begin with the background of our study. These our studies made it possible for us to perform our clinical study. This slide outlines the progress of research on Pls, focusing on their association with Alzheimer’s disease. Research on Alzheimer’s disease was initially led by the United States; in 1995 and 1999, reduced levels of Pls in the brains of cadavers with Alzheimer’s disease were noted, and, subsequently, in 2007, reductions in the serum levels of Pls in living patients with Alzheimer’s disease were reported. In Japan, we succeeded in developing a new, advanced detection method for Pls in 2007. We also developed a method for the extraction and production of high-purity Pls in 2009. The development of these methods facilitated the administration of Pls to animals and humans. Furthermore, we published research papers in 2012 and 2013 reporting that Pls were effective in rats with Alzheimer’s disease, and in 2012 that the levels of Pls were reduced in the erythrocytes of patients with the disease. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving humans from Nov. 2014 to Apr. 2016
It is described that high-performance liquid chromatography can separate intact
ethanolamine plasmalogens and choline plasmalogens as well as all other phospholipid classes by a single chromatographic run.
This slide shows the results of animal experiments using the plasmalogen which we extracted. Left panel shows the formations of dendrites in no application of plasmalogen. Right panel shows the those in application of plasmalogen, DIV6 means the sixth day from embryo, DIV 14 the fourteenth day embryo. These data shows direct application of plasmalogen enhances the formation of dendrites in primary hippocampal cultured neurons.
This figure explains plasmalogen enhance the neurogenesis the memory-related hippocampal cells of mice immunostaining data. As shown in the right panel, the
Plasmalogen-diet mice showed more positive neurons in the dentate gyrus, compared with normal diet.